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Making the Most of Your Debriefing: Top Tips for Smart Contractors

Debriefings are a critical tool in any federal contractor’s toolbox.   As a threshold matter, they are a useful (if not mandatory) first step in many bid protests, helping contractors gather the information they need to substantiate protest arguments.  But debriefings are a useful information gathering tool outside the protest context as well.  Indeed, they are the primary way a contractor – even a successful, awardee-contractor – can find out how to improve future proposal efforts.  Despite their undisputed importance, there is a lot of misinformation out there about debriefings.  As a result, many contractors have serious misconceptions regarding debriefings, when to use them, what information one does and does not get in a debriefing, and how debriefings can impact the bid protest process.  Below are several key tips to keep in mind to make the most of your debriefing!

1.  ALWAYS get one!

You might have already gleaned this from the above, but even a winning proposal is not perfect.  Even if you get the contract award, there may be lessons to be learned.  Even if you won, there is always room for growth.  Always request a debriefing and take the constructive criticism back to your team with the idea of further improving future proposals.

2.  Understand What Information You Can – and Can’t – Get in a Debriefing 

The FAR provides very specific guidelines for what information the government must provide, and what information the government cannot provide, in a debriefing.  The information that a contractor is and is not entitled to depends on whether the debriefing is a pre- or post-award debriefing.  

In my view, the most important things for contractors to remember here are: (1) there are limitations on what can be provided and a contractor may not use debriefings as a fishing expedition to gather information on its competitors; and (2) whether pre- or post- award, contractors always have a right to “[r]easonable responses to relevant questions about whether source selection procedures contained in the solicitation, applicable regulations, and other applicable authorities were followed.”  Use this opportunity!  Come to the debriefing having thoroughly reviewed the solicitation and applicable law, and prepared to ask specific questions about what you think might have gone wrong. 

3.  Learn When a Debriefing Does and Does Not Impact Protest Deadlines

Many contractors will tell you that you have 10 days after a debriefing to file a bid protest.  That is both correct and incorrect.  Correct because, in certain situations, that is true.  But incorrect because that is an exception to the rule for post-award protests, and not the rule itself (let alone the rule applicable to pre-award protests).  

For bid protests brought before the GAO, the deadline depends on the type of protest being filed.  Protests alleging an error in the solicitation itself need to be filed before the deadline to respond to the solicitation.  For all other protests, the rule is that contractors must file not later than 10 days after the basis of protest is known or should have been known (whichever is earlier). 

The exception to this rule is for procurements involving a required and requested debriefing, which should be filed no later than 10 days after that debriefing.  This is the foundation of many contractors’ mistake.  They wrongly believe that the applicable deadline is 10 days from their debriefing, when, in reality, the 10-day clock started ticking the date “the basis of protest is known or should have been known” which, in many cases, is going to be considered the date they got notice of award.  You count your 10 days from the date of a debriefing (as opposed to the date of award) only if the debriefing was both required and timely requested.   The key, then, becomes, understanding when a debriefing is required, and how to timely request it. 

a.  Recognize “Required” Debriefings 

Believe it or not, many types of procurement do not require debriefings.  As a general rule, debriefings are not required for GSA Schedule Procurements under FAR Part 8, for Commercial Item Procurements under FAR Part 12, for Simplified Acquisition Procurements under FAR Part 13, or for Sealed Bidding Acquisitions under FAR Part 14.  It is really only FAR Part 15 competitive procurements, and certain task orders, that have “required” debriefings.  Note, however, that for FAR Part 8 and FAR Part 13 procurements in which award was made based at least partially on non-price evaluation factors, while a “debriefing” is not required, the agency is required to provide “a brief explanation of the basis for the award decision.”  But do not mistake a “brief explanation” for a debriefing, even if the government officials call it a debriefing, which they often do.  This can become a complicated question and it is best to discuss the specifics of your solicitation with an attorney before you file a protest. 

b.  Track What Constitutes a “Timely-Requested” Debriefing

As for the timing of your debriefing request, it again depends on the type of protest you seek to file.  If you were excluded from the competitive range, you should request your debriefing, in writing, within 3 days of receiving your notice of exclusion from the competitive range.  If you are post-award, you should request your debriefing within 3 days of receiving your notice of unsuccessful offeror. 

(Extra credit note: Further complicating things – if you want to go after the automatic stay at GAO, you need to calculate 5 – not 10 – days from the date your clock starts ticking).

4.  Familiarize Yourself with the Enhanced Debriefing Rules

In March 2018, the DoD issued the Department of Defense (DOD) Class Deviation 2018-O0011 — Enhanced Post Award Debrief Rights, which changed some debriefing rules for DoD agencies.  Specifically, the deviation provided that, for all post-award debriefings under FAR 15.506(d), all unsuccessful offerors requesting and receiving a debriefing must be given two business days after receiving the debriefing to ask any additional questions.  The agency should aim to provide written responses within five days.  Regardless of Agency timing, though, they key change was that “the agency shall not consider the post-award debriefing to be concluded until the agency delivers its written responses to the unsuccessful offeror.”  In other words, in any situation where the DoD deviation applies, the contractor’s 10-day protest (or 5-day stay) deadline clock does not start ticking until the contractor get answers to its post-debriefing questions, even if that is, for example, a week after the debriefing itself.  But to take advantage of this extra time, you need to ask questions!  

5.  Don’t Be Afraid to Seek Help

As you can tell, debriefings – and the interrelated processes concerning bid protests – can be very complex and confusing.  There are a lot of moving pieces and any number of pitfalls to trip a contractor up.  If you have questions about debriefings or bid protests, you should consult an attorney with experience in federal bid protests, and you should do so as early in the process as possible.  Attorneys can help advise you as to your deadlines, help draft appropriate debriefing questions, advise you on best conduct for your debriefing, and counsel you on all matters of related strategy.  

About The Author: Maria Panichelli

At McCarty & English, Maria Panichelli focuses her practice exclusively on federal government contracts and procurement. Maria’s practice includes: asserting and defending bid protests; contract interpretation and performance counseling; the preparation and negotiation of Requests for Equitable Adjustment and Contract Disputes Act (CDA) claims, as well as related litigation before the Boards of Contract Appeals, the Court of Federal Claims and the Federal Circuit; statutory and regulatory compliance counseling; resolution of subcontractor disputes (including the negotiation of liquidating agreements, and the litigation of pass-through claims, Miller Act claims, and sub/prime disputes); contract terminations; suspension and debarment; and all aspects of small business procurement. Additionally, Maria has substantial experience with construction-related issues such as defective designs and specifications, express and constructive changes, differing site conditions, delays and disruption; suspensions; and liquidated damages. Connect with her here.

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